Bill of Lading - prepared by the carrier or freight forwarder, the bill of lading is an original shipping contract that lists the dates, services, and actual charges involved in transportation of the goods. It also acts as a receipt for the shipper’s belongings. The bill of lading is needed by the buyer to take possession of the goods.
Cargo Battens - are strips of wood fitted to the inboard side of frames in the hold or cargo spaces of a steel vessel in order to keep the cargo away from the shell plating and avoid all contact with metallic surfaces. These battens are usually about 6 by 1-1/2 in., running fore and aft and bolted to the frames about 1ft, apart – also called holding sparring, hold battens, sparring battens. A general rule is that when stowing general or mixed cargoes the cargo comes into contact with the cargo battens, not the steel skin or frames of the ship. When carrying bulk cargoes, cargo battens, if fitted, must be removed. They protect the cargo from ship’s sweat, heat etc.
Charter Party - a written contract of hire for a ship or aircraft for the transportation of goods on a specific voyage or flight. In shipping, the charter party is usually made between the Owner of a vessel and a Charterer. The charter party will normally include the freight rates or hire and the ports involved in the transportation.
Classification Rules - Classification rules are developed by Classification Societies to assess the structural strength and integrity of essential parts of the ship’s Hull and its appendages, and the reliability and the function of the propulsion and steering systems, power generation and those other features and auxiliary systems which have been built into the ship in order to maintain services on board.
Containers - a sealed, reusable metal box used for moving goods in by ship, road or rail. Containers, or boxes, are of standard designs, normally 20ft (referred to as TEU – 20-foot equivalent unit), 40ft (referred to as FEU – 40-foot equivalent unit) or 45 ft in length. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack, open top, bulk liquid or equipped with interior devices.
Cubic Capacity - (Cube) Each ship has two cubic capacities: 1. Grain cubic and 2. Bale cubic. Grain cubic is the maximum space available for cargo measured in cubic feet or cubic meters, the measurement taken to the inside of the shell plating of the ship (or to the outside of the frames and to the top of the beams (or underside of the deck plating). In other words, if a bulk cargo such as grain were loaded, it would flow in between the frames and beams, thereby occupying the maximum space available, or the grain cubic capacity. The Bale cubic capacity is the space available for cargo measured in cubic feet to the inside of the cargo battens, to the inside of the frames or to the underside of the beams. The Bale cubic applies when dealing with bagged cargoes or a general cargo of mixed commodities. In loading hand-stowed cargo, the cargo rests against the frames or against the cargo battens (if fitted); it does not came into contact with (extend to) the skin of the ship.
Cutter Suction Dredgers - stationary dredgers that have to be towed to their work site by tugs. Once in position, so-called spud poles keep the cutter dredger in place. Winches then lower the cutter head to the seabed and as it turns and is pulled across the bottom horizontally the cutter head cuts into the soil. Loosened material is then dredged up and pumped to its destination via a floating pipeline.
Draft - the distance a vessel extends below its waterline, measured vertically to the lowest part of the hull, propellers or other projecting point. (Contrast this to depth of water, which must of necessity be a greater figure than “draft,” if the vessel is to be afloat.) Traditionally expressed in feet and inches but often routinely in meters.
Dunnage - the use of sufficient dunnage (pieces of wood etc.) is one of the principal precautions against damage to stowed cargo. Materials that are not affected by moisture are used as dunnage, such as: boards, matting, burlap, rattan. The dunnage is laid on the ceiling and along the wooden cargo battens and all other places where necessary. The object is to prevent or limit damage by crushing, chafing, shifting of cargo, sweat, moisture, contact with hold pillars, etc.
Economic Speed - this is the speed of a vessel producing the best possible financial results for owners, giving proper consideration to the following: 1. The prices of bunkers in the ports en route. 2. Fuel consumption of the vessel at various speeds. 3. Daily operating costs. 4. The net freight per ton of cargo. 5. Operating profit per day. 6. Subsequent available employment of vessel and anticipated freight.
Feeders - when liner-type vessels or other non bulkcarriers load grain in bulk, feeders are erected to direct the cargo to the different parts of the holds or compartments. Thereby filling all free space, grain in bulk may settle as much as 5% during a voyage; therefore measures must be taken to prevent the shifting of grain, which could result in the listing of the vessel.
Free Pratique - this expression means that the vessel has a clean bill of health from the local health authorities. This is a formality usually executed by the ship’s agents before the vessel actually obtains a berth. After berthing, the health authorities may board the vessel in order to verify the “free pratique.” Loading or discharge cannot take place until it is obtained.
Gas - commonly referred to an Liquefied Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas in the maritime industry. LNG is natural gas converted to liquid form by cooling to a very low temperature. LPG is a gas consisting primarily of propane, propylene, butane, and butylene in various mixtures, which is stored as a liquid by increasing pressure.
International Safety Management (ISM) - International Safety Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention. The ISM Code establishes an international standard for safe management and operation of ships by setting rules for the organization of company management in relation to safety and pollution prevention, and for implementation of a safety management system (SMS.) ISM was adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 1993 with entry into force depending on the type of ship, commencing from July 1, 1998.
Malaccamax - as the name suggests, Malaccamax ships are the largest ships that can pass through the Strait off Malacca which is 25 m (82 ft) deep. As per the current permissible limits, a Malaccamax vessel can have a maximum length of 400 m (1,312ft), beam of 59 m (193.5 ft), and draught of 14.5 m (47.5 ft).
Nautical Charts - a graphical representation of waters (and any adjacent land) that can be navigated. The chart will show water depths, heights of land, natural features of the seabed, coastline detail, navigational hazards, locations of natural and man-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, and man-made structures such as harbours and bridges.
Panamax/ New Panamax Bulk Carrier - as the name suggests, Panamax and New Panamax ships are travelling through the Panama Canal. They strictly follow the size regulations set by the Panama Canal Authority, as the entry and exit points of the Canal are narrow. A Panamax vessel can't be longer than 294,13 m (965 ft), wider than 32,31 m (106 ft) and her draught can't be more than 12,04 m (39.5 ft). These vessels have an average capacity of 65,000 DWT, and are primarily used in transporting coal, crude oil and petroleum products. They operate in the Caribbean and Latin American regions. The New Panamax has been created as a result of the expanding plans for Panama Canal locks. Expanded locks will be around 427 m (1400 ft) long, 55 m (180 ft) wide and 18,30 m (60 ft) deep so Panama Canal will be able to handle larger vessels.
Suezmax - vessels named after the famous Suez Canal. They are mid-sized cargo vessels with a capacity ranging between 120,000 to 200,000 DWT. They are designed to pass through the majority of the ports in the world. Currently the permissible limits for suezmax ships are 20.1 m (66 ft) of draught with the beam no wider than 50 m (164.0 ft), or 12.2 m (40 ft) of draught with maximum allowed beam of 77.5 m (254 ft).
Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger - a large ocean-going vessel that Dredges material from the bed of a body of water by suction. Pumps then transfer the sand dredged up by the suction head into the hold or hopper. Excess water is drained off via overflow pipes and when the hopper is full, the ship sails a reclamation area to unload the dredged material.
Wing Tanks - tanks located along the sides of the ship, usually under the upper deck. When describing the wing tank care must be taken in stating whether they bleed (flow directly into the ship’s holds) or whether they must be discharged through on-deck hatches. Wing tanks are used only with free-flowing cargoes such as grain.