Bill of Lading - prepared by the carrier or freight forwarder, the bill of lading is an original shipping contract that lists the dates, services, and actual charges involved in transportation of the goods. It also acts as a receipt for the shipper’s belongings. The bill of lading is needed by the buyer to take possession of the goods.
Charter Party - a written contract of hire for a ship or aircraft for the transportation of goods on a specific voyage or flight. In shipping, the charter party is usually made between the Owner of a vessel and a Charterer. The charter party will normally include the freight rates or hire and the ports involved in the transportation.
Classification Rules - Classification rules are developed by Classification Societies to assess the structural strength and integrity of essential parts of the ship’s Hull and its appendages, and the reliability and the function of the propulsion and steering systems, power generation and those other features and auxiliary systems which have been built into the ship in order to maintain services on board.
Containers - a sealed, reusable metal box used for moving goods in by ship, road or rail. Containers, or boxes, are of standard designs, normally 20ft (referred to as TEU – 20-foot equivalent unit), 40ft (referred to as FEU – 40-foot equivalent unit) or 45 ft in length. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack, open top, bulk liquid or equipped with interior devices.
Cutter Suction Dredgers - stationary dredgers that have to be towed to their work site by tugs. Once in position, so-called spud poles keep the cutter dredger in place. Winches then lower the cutter head to the seabed and as it turns and is pulled across the bottom horizontally the cutter head cuts into the soil. Loosened material is then dredged up and pumped to its destination via a floating pipeline.
Gas - commonly referred to an Liquefied Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas in the maritime industry. LNG is natural gas converted to liquid form by cooling to a very low temperature. LPG is a gas consisting primarily of propane, propylene, butane, and butylene in various mixtures, which is stored as a liquid by increasing pressure.
Nautical Charts - a graphical representation of waters (and any adjacent land) that can be navigated. The chart will show water depths, heights of land, natural features of the seabed, coastline detail, navigational hazards, locations of natural and man-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, and man-made structures such as harbours and bridges.
Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger - a large ocean-going vessel that Dredges material from the bed of a body of water by suction. Pumps then transfer the sand dredged up by the suction head into the hold or hopper. Excess water is drained off via overflow pipes and when the hopper is full, the ship sails a reclamation area to unload the dredged material.